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This chapter focuses on the volatile compounds that have odorant potential; that is, the chemical compounds that easily evaporate, changing from a liquid state to a gaseous one, imparting an aroma. All aroma compounds are volatile, but not all volatile compounds are odorants, fortunately. There are few senses that awaken more curiosity in us than smell: do primary odours exist? What about pure smells? What is the minimum amount necessary for a person to perceive a smell? Are there essential aromas in a wine? All these questions are answered as we learn about the anatomy of the nose and how it functions. We even explore the mechanisms of air circulation through the nasal cavity during inhalation (called the orthonasal route) and exhalation (the retronasal route). Central to this chapter is the process by which the intake of an aroma compound is converted into a nerve impulse.