Ferran Adrià

It is very difficult to be innovative at the highest level in any discipline. For some chefs, it’s simply a matter of combining ingredients, but that’s something you can do with your eyes closed.

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14th May 1962

Ferran Adrià Acosta was born in L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain), and completed his basic studies in Barcelona where he lived with his parents, Ginés and Josefa, and his brother Albert. His passion was football and, as is normal for a child of his age, his relationship with cooking was virtually non-existent at this point.



In 1977, he entered the Instituto Politécnico de la Merced to take Administrative Studies, the first step towards a degree in Business Studies.

In 1980, he took a personal turn and began a period in which he left his former studies behind and progressively entered the professional world of cooking, starting as a dishwasher at the Playafels Hotel and ending up in the Admiral’s kitchen team during his military service in the Navy from 1982 to 1983. This allowed him to gain experience in taking on responsibilities, as for the first time he was in charge of a kitchen.

Following the suggestion of another Catalan recruit working at elBulli, Fermí Puig, in the summer of 1983 he spent his month’s leave at the restaurant in Cala Montjoi. At the end of this stage, and since the experience had been satisfactory, Ferran decided to join the team as soon as he finished his military service.



In April 1984, he joined elBulli as chef de partie, until November 1, when, after the departure of chef Jean-Paul Vinay, the director, Juli Soler, appointed him and Christian Lutaud as tandem chefs.

In October 1986, following the departure of Christian Lutaud, Ferran Adrià became sole chef at elBulli.

Albert Adrià, who had joined the team in 1985, completed the triplet of leaders along with Ferran and Juli Soler. Without these three figures, it would not be possible to understand the legacy of elBullirestaurante.

In 1987, Ferran made the decision to set aside the reproduction of Nouvelle Cuisine recipes, the movement setting the creative standard at the time, and chose to dedicate himself to following his own understanding of cuisine.

In 1990, Restaurante elBulli S.L. was born, a company formed by Juli Soler and Ferran Adrià, in which they developed a business model based on a small business group undertaking different lines of endeavour: consulting and advisory services with companies in the food industry, hotel and catering, their own publishing house and a catering company, among other projects. This model established a new mission for elBullirestaurante, which became the R&D and marketing department of this galaxy of projects, although its commitment to the avant-garde always came before the business. The radical, groundbreaking nature of elBulli was maintained thanks to this model.

From the early nineties, a change began to take place in Ferran’s cuisine and elBullirestaurante, and together with the “Mediterranean” dishes, a series of new concepts, elaborations, techniques and service formats began to appear, paving the way for the change which, incontestably, took place in 1994, developing its own style of cuisine that changed the paradigm of gastronomy and was the genesis of the techno-emotional movement.

In 2000, elBullitaller was created in Portaferrissa street in Barcelona, where creative work was concentrated in the months when the restaurant was closed and a model of creativity was established that was gradually perfected. In addition, all the variables and resources of the process were subjected to a creative audit that provided a high level of efficiency and effectiveness. This is what, in the end, has determined elBulli’s creative longevity.

Ferran has been married to Isabel Pérez since 2002 and they have no children.



On July 30, 2011, elBullirestaurante closed its doors to become elBullifoundation, a private foundation with a family structure promoted by Ferran Adrià and Juli Soler, that was established on 7 February 2013 and has its headquarters at elBulli1846 in Cala Montjoi, the location of the former restaurant. With a vision for the future based on the legacy and spirit of elBulli, the foundation has a threefold mission:

  • To safeguard the legacy of elBullirestaurante: as a physical space and also as a fund of knowledge and documentary resource responsible for changing the paradigm of the fine dining sector worldwide.
  • To share the expertise in management and innovation: two aspects that are fundamental to the success and longevity of any entrepreneurial project.
  • To generate high quality content for the fine dining sector: providing a valuable self-learning and educational tool that contributes to furthering gastronomy as an academic discipline.



In the fine dining sector

  • elBullirestaurante was named best restaurant in the world five times, four of them in consecutive years (2002, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009) by The World’s 50 best Restaurants.
  • He also obtained the highest score in the most important gastronomic guides (Michelin, Gault & Millau, Lo Mejor de la Gastronomía, Repsol, …).
  • Creator of new concepts and business models that have generated influence at different levels: elBullicatering, elBullihotel, NH Hoteles (where the Fast Good and Nhube concepts were created), Heart Ibiza, Condividere by Lavazza…
  • Cover of The New York Times magazine (2003), which singles out Ferran Adrià as the leading representative of a new movement in avant-garde cuisine that is leading world gastronomy, followed by a cover of Time (2004), where he is included as one of the 100 most influential people on the planet.
  • An award for “Best Chef of the Decade” (2010) in The World’s 50 best Restaurants, and “The Legend” Award in The Best Chef Awards 2023, the two most important lists of the fine dining sector in the world. This is recognition of his influence on the change of paradigm in the fine dining sector and on gastronomy in its globality.


In the food industry

  • He has been advisor for more than 20 leading national and international companies: Chocovic, Borges, Kaiku, Caprabo, Lavazza, Diageo, Nestlé, Pepsico, United Biscuits, Damm, Dom Pérignon…, where he acquired first class knowledge in everything related to marketing, commercial, communication, strategy and innovation systems in large companies.


In product design

  • “Lucky Strike Designer Award” (2006), one of the most important awards in the world of design, as a sign of his influence on changing the relationship between the world of cooking and design, demonstrating that an SME could have its own design.


In education

  • Creator, with Harvard University, of the course “Science and Cuisine”, which would foster a paradigm shift in the relationship between the world of universities and gastronomy.
  • Promoter of a multitude of challenges related to elBullifoundation and innovation in the most renowned universities in the world: Harvard, MIT MediaLab, London Business School, Columbia, Esade, IESE, University of Barcelona UB, Elisava…
  • He participated in the creation of the Alicia Foundation, a centre with a social vocation to promote good nutrition that connects gastronomy and culture on the one hand, and science and health on the other.
  • Creator of the Sapiens methodology, designed to connect knowledge in order to understand a given object of study, with which numerous projects, such as Bullipedia, have been carried out and which form part of the academic heart of the MACC, an innovative university project for training, creation and gastronomic exchange that is unique in the world.
  • Holder of five Doctor Honoris Causa from the universities of Barcelona, Valencia, Aberdeen (Scotland), Quebec (Canada) and Córdoba (Argentina).


In the dialogue between Japanese gastronomy and Western Haute Cuisine 

  • Awarded the Order of the Rising Sun (2015) by His Majesty the Emperor of Japan Akihito, the highest decoration conferred by Japan for those promoting Japanese culture and strengthening its international relations with other countries.


In the publishing and audiovisual world

  • Author of more than 60 books and audiovisual projects that provide the necessary content to understand elBulli’s work in its entirety.
  • Together with Juli Soler, he created his own publishing house, elBulliBooks, with which they have published, among other titles, the elBulli Catalogue, constituting more than 7,000 pages that organise the complete culinary output of elBullirestaurante and the analysis of the restaurant’s creative evolution.
  • In the new phase of elBullifoundation, he created and leads the Bullipedia project, an encyclopaedia on the Western fine dining sector, which has already published 23 volumes and has 30 more planned to be completed in the coming years.
  • He has carried out other highly influential publishing projects such as “Cocinar en 10 minutos con Ferran Adrià” (El Corte Inglés), “Las 50 Nuevas Tapas de Ferran Adrià” (Woman) which was a pioneering proposal in the gastrobar concept, “A Day at elBulli” (Phaidon), “The Family Meal” (RBA), “Te Cuento en la Cocina” (Disney)…
  • Creator or main collaborator in various audiovisual projects, such as the documentary series “elBulli, the story of a dream”, “elBulli, Cooking in Progress”, “Documenting Documenta”, “The Last Waltz”, “The Legacy of elBulli”…


In the art world

  • He took part in Documenta 12 in Kassel (2007), the most important event of the art world where the connection between cuisine and art was contextualised for the first time.
  • Creator of various exhibitions that have travelled around the world disseminating the knowledge generated from elBullirestaurante and elBullifoundation: “Ferran Adrià & elBulli: risk, freedom and creativity”, “Ferran Adrià: Notes on Creativity”, “Ferran Adrià. Auditing the Creative Process”, “Ferran Adrià. The Invention of Food”, “Sapiens, understanding in order to create”, “Picasso’s Kitchen”…
  • Creator of elBulli1846, the first restaurant museum in the history of gastronomy.
  • Throughout his career, he has carried out many collaborations with different artists: Richard Hamilton, Bruno Mantovani, Hannah Collins…


In the field of management

  • Projects to disseminate management knowledge for the fine dining sector in partnership with CaixaBank: “Mise en Place”, “Food and Beverage”, “77 Innovative Actitude”, CaixaBank Campus Lab, …


In the field of innovation

  • Global ambassador for Telefónica since 2010, through which he has carried out countless projects related to innovation and education at the highest level:
    • Conferences: more than 700 conferences around the world to offer an in-depth reflection on the world of digital transformation and innovation.
    • Challenges: Ideas4Transformation, Hacking Bullipedia, Talentum, NFTs: The theory of culinary evolution…



The Galaxy is the business model of Juli Soler, Ferran Adrià and Albert Adrià concerning elBullirestaurante. In 1998, a key decision was taken as to how the business model should be, making a conceptual change based on the following premise: keeping elBullirestaurante at the cutting-edge. To give us the necessary freedom to do this, a business model for elBullirestaurante was created, based on consultancy and image work, and the formation of our own business lines.



1997 – Collaboration with the creative team of Chocovic in ventures related to chocolate.

1999 – R & D, and creation of vinaigrettes, sauces and aromatic olive oils in partnership with Borges

2000 – Study and creation of soups and dairy products for Kaiku, together with Juan Mari Arzak, Karlos Arguiñano and Pedro Subijana.

2001 – Collaboration with Caprabo in several publishing and consultancy projects.

2002 – Collaboration with Lavazza, for the creation of products and concepts related to coffee.

2004 – Innovations in the world of cocktails, with Diageo

2005Texturas, a line of products selected by elBullitaller, to bring new elaborations to the kitchen.

2005 – Working on new creations in chocolate with the architect Jean Nouvel and the team of Cailler, a company in the Nestlé group.

2005 – A new range of potato crisps, and other ideas for aperitif concepts in collaboration with the R & D department of Frito Lays, of the Pepsico company.

2007 – R & D in fruit juices and cookies, with United Biscuits.

2008 – Creation of Inedit, in collaboration with the team of Damm master brewers. A ground-breaking new line of beer that, for its elegance and ability to accompany the great variety of flavours existing in modern gastronomy, offers an alternative to wine.



1986 – ElBulli Bistrot opens in the Pasarela nightclub in Empuriabrava (Roses).

1989 – Consultancy work for Bel-Air, Chévere, Network and Samoa restaurants (Barcelona), along with Can Bosch (Cambrils).

1990 – Consultancy work for Reina de España restaurant (Puerto Rico).

1992 – Consultancy work for the Bernat II Hotel (Calella).

1993 – The Ñam-Ñam self-service restaurant opens at the same time as Dim-Sum, a European dim-sum concept restaurant. Both at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) in Barcelona.

1993 – A collaboration with Semon begins, which lasts one year.

1994Mas Pau restaurant opens, in Avinyonet de Puigventós (Figueres), run by Xavier Sagristà and Toni Gerez.

1995ElBullicatering is born, in which the cuisine, philosophy and service of elBulli is transferred to the world of catering.

1999 – Creation of elBullihotel, whose first project is the Hacienda Benazuza hotel, where consultancy work is also undertaken for the gastronomic offer of the hotel.

2001 – Commencing a collaboration with NH Hoteles, which bears fruit with two projects: Nhube and Fast Good.

2010 – Tickets. In collaboration with Albert Adrià; a re-imagining of the concept of contemporary tapas.

From 2011 on…

2015 – Heart Ibiza. In collaboration with Albert Adrià and the founder of Cirque du Soleil; a multidisciplinary project which allows us to explore the limits of what a restaurant is.



1998 –With ICC company, state-of-the-art kitchen utensils and appliances, including the siphon, are manufactured and commercialised.

2001 – Creation of Ola dishware with designer Gemma Bernal, produced by CIM, which became a success in the restaurant business.

2004 – Agreement with Armand Basi to create tablecloths and textile tableware products related to the world of cooking.

2004 – Creation of Faces, producing cutlery, kitchenware and utensils for table service, in a joint collaboration with some great names in Spanish design.



Printed publications (including for elBulliBooks and material for other publishers)

35 books
More than 15,000 pages of content
More than 8,000 images
6 CDs with 1,846 recipes

Audio-visual publications

2009 – General Audio-visual Catalogue in 9 episodes, in collaboration with Televisión Española
2009 – A Day at elBulli
2011 – Documenting Documenta

In close collaboration
2009 – elBulli – Cooking in progress
2011 – elBulli, Last Waltz



  • 1994 Grand Prix de L’Art de la Cuisine. Awarded by: International Academy of Gastronomy.
  • 1997 elBulli receives its third star from the Michelin Guide.
  • 2002 World’s Best Restaurant. Awarded by: The Restaurant Magazine.
  • 2003 Cover of the Sunday supplement of The New York Times Magazine. On 10th August, a sixteen-page article about the New Nouvelle cuisine that places Spanish avantgarde cuisine as the top gastronomy in the world and Ferran Adrià as its maximum exponent.
  • As President of the Advisory Board of the Alicia Foundation, created in 2003, Ferran leads an innovative project researching food and health, using cuisine as a language.
  • 2004 Cover of Time Magazine, naming Ferran as one of the 100 most influential people in the world.
  • 2005 The Ferran Adrià Chair in Gastronomic Culture and Food Sciences is set up at the Camilo José Cela University in Madrid.
  • 2006 Lucky Strike Designer Award. Awarded by: Raymond Loewy Foundation.
  • 2006 World’s Best Restaurant. Awarded by: The Restaurant Magazine.
  • 2007 Honorary Degree from the Faculty of Chemistry of the Universitat de Barcelona.
  • 2007 Ferran is the first chef ever invited to take part in Documenta, the prestigious five-yearly exhibition of contemporary art in Kassel.
  • 2007 World’s Best Restaurant. Awarded by: The Restaurant Magazine.
  • 2007 European Merit Gold Medal. Awarded by: Fondation du Mérite Européen, supported by the European Community.
  • 2008 Honorary Degree from the University of Aberdeen, Scotland.
  • 2008 World’s Best Restaurant. Awarded by: The Restaurant Magazine.
  • 2009 World’s Best Restaurant. Awarded by: The Restaurant Magazine.
  • 2009 The menu of elBulli inspires a musical composition. In June, Le livre des illusions (hommage à Ferran Adrià) is presented at Salle Pleyel in Paris. The work is composed by the French musician Bruno Mantovani and comprises 35 movements through which the composer illustrates the texture of each of the 35 dishes in the tasting menu.
  • 2010 Honorary Degree from the Universitat Politècnica de València.
  • 2010 Visiting Professor at the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences of Harvard University.
  • 2011 Global Brand Ambassador for Telefónica.
  • The efficiency, effectiveness and creative longevity of the elBulli model has attracted the attention of various business schools, which have devoted efforts to researching and making case studies of Ferran Adrià and elBulli: Columbia, Harvard, ESADE Business School, IESE, Berkeley, London Business School, …
  • Different exhibitions are staged during the 2012-2018 period (see annex).
  • He is the author of more than 30 books (see annex).


  • El Bulli. El sabor del Mediterráneo, Ferran Adrià, Juli Soler. Photographs: Francesc Guillamet. Antártida, 1993
  • Los secretos de El Bulli, Ferran Adrià. Altaya, 1998
  • Cocinar en 10 minutos con Ferran Adrià, Ferran Adrià. Photographs: Francesc Guillamet. El Corte Inglés, 1998
  • Las 50 nuevas tapas de Ferran Adrià, Ferran Adrià. Photographs: Francesc Guillamet. Woman, 1998
  • 70 platos nuevos y ligeros para el verano. Aceites, vinagretas y ensaladas por Ferran Adrià, Ferran Adrià. Photographs: Francesc Guillamet. Woman, 1998
  • Celebrar el milenio con Arzak y Adrià – 2000 – 2001, Ferran Adrià, Juan Mari Arzak. Photographs: Francesc Guillamet. Ediciones Península, 1999
  • elBulli 1998-2002, Ferran Adrià, Juli Soler, Albert Adrià. Photographs: Francesc Guillamet. elBullibooks, 2002
  • elBulli 1994-1997, Ferran Adrià, Juli Soler, Albert Adrià. Photographs: Francesc Guillamet. elBullibooks, 2003
  • Cocinar en casa con Caprabo y Ferran Adrià, Ferran Adrià, Juli Soler, Albert Adrià. Photographs: Francesc Guillamet. elBullibooks, 2003
  • elBulli 1983-1993, Ferran Adrià, Juli Soler, Albert Adrià. Photographs: Francesc Guillamet. elBullibooks, 2004
  • elBulli 2003-2004, Ferran Adrià, Juli Soler, Albert Adrià. Photographs: Francesc Guillamet. elBullibooks, 2005
  • elBulli2005, Ferran Adrià, Juli Soler, Albert Adrià. Photographs: Francesc Guillamet. elBullibooks, 2006
  • Léxico científico gastronómico. Fundación Alicia, elBullitaller. Editorial Planeta, 2006
  • Un día en elBulli, Ferran Adrià, Juli Soler, Albert Adrià. Photographs: Maribel Ruiz de Erenchun. elBullibooks, 2007
  • Mibu-elBulli, Nahomi Tanaka, Dai Ochiai. 2007
  • A Day at elBulli, Ferran Adrià, Albert Adrià, Juli Soler. Photographs: Maribel Ruiz de Erenchun. Phaidon, 2009
  • La cocina de la salud, Ferran Adrià, Valentí Fuster. Planeta, 2011
  • La comida de la familia / The Family Meal, Ferran Adrià, elBullirestaurante team. RBA / Phaidon, 2011
  • elBulli 2005 2010-11, Ferran Adrià, Juli Soler, Albert Adrià. Photographs: Francesc Guillamet. Phaidon, 2014
  • Te cuento en la cocina, Ferran Adrià, Disney, Pixar, Star Wars, Marvel. Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial, 2016
  • Bullipedia: Between 2017 and 2020, approximately 20 books will be published forming part of an encyclopaedia of Western restaurant gastronomy.


  • La cocina fácil de Ferran Adrià. Ferran Adrià. 2005
  • Catálogo audiovisual. Ferran Adrià, Juli Soler, Albert Adrià. RTVE, 2009
  • Un día en elBulli. Ferran Adrià, Juli Soler, Albert Adrià. RTVE, 2009
  • elBulli. Cooking in progress. Gereon Wetzel. A contracorriente, 2010
  • Documenting Documenta. Ferran Adrià. elBulli, 2011
  • El último vals. Ferran Adrià, Juli Soler, Albert Adrià. elBulli, 2011


…in addition to a large number of documentaries broadcasted on television channels throughout the world.



  • From 2nd February 2012 to 3rd February 2013 at the Palau Robert in Barcelona, entitled: Ferran Adrià & elBulli: Risk, Freedom & Creativity. This exhibition is also held between 5th July and 29th September at Somerset House (London), called: “El Bulli; Ferran Adrià and The Art of Food”, and later, from 15th February to 26th May 2013 at the Museum of Science (MoS) in Boston (Massachusetts), entitled: “Innovation in the Art of Food: Chef Ferran Adrià”.
  • From 25th January to 28th February 2014 at the Drawing Center (New York) under the title “Ferran Adrià: Notes on Creativity”. This touring exhibition is also held at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Cleveland (Ohio) between 26th September 2014 and 18th January 2015. Then it transfers to the Minneapolis Institute of Art in Minneapolis from 17th September 2015 to 3rd January 2016 and then on to Marres, House for Contemporary Culture in Maastricht (The Netherlands) from 20th March to 12th June 2016.
  • From 19th to 23rd February 2014 in the El País stand at Arco Madrid (International Contemporary Art Fair), Ferran Adrià’s drawings and annotations are displayed, describing the map of the gastronomic process and giving a diagrammatic reflection of the evolution of cuisine, from the Big Bang right up to the present time. This show complements the exhibition being held concurrently at the Drawing Center in New York.
  • From 2nd June to 31st August 2014 at the Palau Robert in Barcelona, a public exhibition is held presenting the architectural and conceptual project for elBullifoundation in Cala Montjoi, sharing the background to the project and its plans and models.
  • On 29th October 2014 an exhibition entitled “Ferran Adrià. Auditing the Creative Process” is inaugurated in Madrid, at Fundación Telefónica, which explores the codification of the creative process. After, the exhibition tours different countries for two years: Peru (Lima), Brazil (Sao Paulo), Germany (Berlin) and Argentina (Buenos Aires).
  • From 25th September to 27th November 2016 an exhibition entitled “Ferran Adrià: The Invention of Food” is held at the Dalí Museum of St. Petersburg (Florida, United States). The exhibition offers an overview of the phenomenon of creation, drawing a parallel between the emblematic elBullirestaurante, in Cala Montjoi, and neighbouring Cadaqués, a place representative of the presence of Salvador Dalí.
  • Between 15th November 2016 and 31st May 2017 an exhibition entitled “Sapiens. Understand to create” is held in Barcelona. A dish as emblematic and apparently as simple as tomato bread is the ideal pretext to address the complex and plural reality of the world of cooking, together with the difficulty of understanding what we mean by: “natural” products, elaborated products, elaborations, the role of tradition… This exhibition, created at CosmoCaixa, in collaboration with Fundación La Caixa and Obra Social La Caixa, is the first exhibition concerning the Sapiens methodology, which has been developed by Ferran Adrià and the elBullifoundation team.


  1. Cooking is a language through which all the following properties can be expressed: harmony, creativity, happiness, beauty, poetry, complexity, magic, humour, provocation, culture.
  2. Two things are taken as given: the use of the highest quality products and the skill and expertise to prepare them properly.
  3. All the products have the same culinary value, regardless of their price.
  4. Preference is given to vegetables and seafood, with a key role also being played by dairy products, dried fruits and nuts and other products that make up a light form of cooking. In recent years sparing use has been made of red meat and poultry in large pieces.
  5. Although the characteristics of the products are modified (temperature, texture, form, etc.), the aim is always to preserve the purity of their original taste, except for processes that call for long cooking or seek the nuances of processes like the Maillard reaction.
  6. Cooking techniques, both classic and modern, are a heritage that the cook must know how to utilise with expertise.
  7. As has occurred in most fields of human evolution down the ages, new technologies are a support for the ongoing progress of cooking.
  8. The family of stocks/fonds is being extended. Together with the classic ones, lighter fonds performing an identical function are now being used (water products, broths, consommés, clarified vegetable juice, nut milks, etc.).
  9. The information given by a dish is enjoyed through the senses; it can also be enjoyed and rationalised through reflection.
  10. Taste is not the only sense that can be stimulated: touch can also be played with (contrasts of temperatures and textures), as well as smell, sight (colours, shapes, trompe d’oeil, etc.), whereby the five senses become one of the main points of reference in the creative cooking process.
  11. The technical-conceptual search is the apex of the creative pyramid.
  12. Creation involves teamwork. Furthermore, research and investigation has become established as a new characteristic in the culinary creative process.
  13. The barriers between the sweet and savoury world are being broken down. A new cold cuisine has gained importance in which the highlight is the creation of the frozen savoury world.
  14. The classical structure of dishes is being broken down: a veritable revolution is underway in first courses and desserts, closely bound up with the concept of symbiosis between sweet and savoury worlds. In main dishes the “product-garnish-sauce” hierarchy is being broken down.
  15. A new way of serving food is being fostered. The finishing of dishes in the dining room by serving staff has been worked upon. In other cases, the diners themselves participate in the finishing of the dish.
  16. Local cooking tradition as a style is a sense of bonding with the local geographical and cultural context, as well as with its culinary tradition. The link with nature complements and enriches this relationship with the environment.
  17. Products and elaborations from other countries are subject to the individual criteria of cooking.
  18. There are two main paths to achieve harmony between products and flavours: through memory (connection with local cooking traditions, adaptation, deconstruction, previous modern recipes), or through new combinations.
  19. An individual language more and more systematised is created that on occasions establishes a relationship with the world and the language of art.
  20. Recipes are conceptualised that give harmony to small servings.
  21. Decontextualization, irony, spectacle, performance, are completely legitimate, providing they are not superficial but are closely bound up with a process of gastronomic reflection.
  22. The tasting menu is the greater expression of avant-garde cuisine. The structure is living and subject to changes. Concepts such as snacks, tapas, avant-desserts, morphings, etc are coming into their own.
  23. Knowledge and/or collaboration with experts in different fields (gastronomic culture, history, industrial design, etc.) is paramount for our ongoing evolution. In particular, cooperation with the food industry and science has resulted in a fundamental shift. Sharing this knowledge between the different culinary professions contributes to this evolution.